Department of Linguistics

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Language investigations

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"Have a good day!" Is the world growing more or less polite?

In some service industries in Britain, typically American experssions like Hi, how are you and 'Have a nice day!' are becoming more widely used. These innovations are often disliked as they seem counter to our traditional British reserve. As a result they are sometimes thought to be impolite. You could investigate the politeness routines used in service encounters in your home town.  

  Lang investigation - Have a good day [PDF 479KB]
'Turn on the light' or 'turn the light on'?

This is a language investigation about language variation, focusing on phrasal verbs in English. These are verbs with a particle like on, up or off that helps to form their meaning.


Which sounds more natural to you?

(1) she turned on the light or (2) she turned the light on?

(3) he cut open the melon or (4) he cut the melon open?

  Phrasal verbs - langinvest [PDF 1,031KB]
What does 'gay' mean in present-day English?

Words change their meanings over time, and sometimes the changes happen so quickly that we can spot them in action. You could investigate ongoing semantic change in the English language by looking at the changing meanings of just one word, for example the adjective gay.


  Lang investigation - Gay [PDF 1,732KB]
Like it's teenage talk - or is it?

Do you use like as a discourse marker?  People often think it's only teenagers who use like this way, but research in the USA  by Christopher Odato* has found that young children now use like too - even children as young as 4. What about children in the UK though? You could investigate this, seeing whether young children in your part of the country use the discourse marker like.

  Like - Language investigation [PDF 968KB]
What do people in your community think about language brokering?

Children and young people from immigrant families sometimes translate or interpret into English for an adult in their family whose English is not good enough for them to be able to cope outside the home. This activity is known as 'language brokering'.  You could investigate for yourself how people in your own community feel about language brokering.


  Language brokering - Language investigation [PDF 150KB]
General extenders and things like that

Researchers have found that little phrases such as and stuff or and stuff like that, and everything and or something have important discourse functions in spoken English. You could investigate their functions and whether they have their literal meaning by gathering your own data.


  General extenders - Language investigation [PDF 153KB]
Intensifiers: dead cool / proper cool / really cool / very cool?

We all like to boost (or intensify) the force of our adjectives (and other words), so words like 'very' and 'really' (intensifiers) get used a lot, and then lose their force as people get used to hearing them. This means that the words people choose as intensifiers tend to change quite quickly. You could investigate variation and change in intensifiers in several ways.

  Intensifiers - Language investigation [PDF 105KB]
'Do you understand who I'm talking to?' Second person plural forms in English

Most languages have separate words for singular and plural pronouns. English used to have separate second person pronouns too, but since thou fell out of use the 'you' pronoun has had to do double duty. How do we deal with this problem?

  Second person plural forms - Lang investigation [PDF 93KB]
Directions language investigation

"Do you know where the railway station is?" Do men and women give different kinds of directions when they are asked a question like this? This is a language investigation for students who want to go out into the community to find out about everyday language use.


  Directions - Language investigation [PDF 102KB]
Compliments: who gives them, and why?
Twenty or thirty years ago, researchers found that most compliments were given by women to other women, as a way of being friendly and, often, to start up a conversation. Many female compliments were about appearance, especially when someone had taken some trouble to look good. Is this true of the people you know? You could investigate this by keeping track of their compliments over a week or so.


  Compliments - Language investigation [PDF 93KB]
Is there a global 'call centre' speech style?

Recent research suggests that there is a global call centre speech style. To investigate this you could collect your own data by phoning and comparing two call centres based in different areas in the UK (e.g. London and Scotland) or even in two different countries (e.g. UK and India) or you could compare two different business sectors (e.g. banking and a computer helpline). What similarities in style do you find?


  Call centre speech style - Language investigation [PDF 95KB]
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